Industrial Security Management can be defined from various perspectives depending on whom and what is actually involved. Generally, it is regarded as deliberate activities to satisfy the need, to ensure the absence of danger and wary, and to prevent unacceptable loss and danger to corporate assets (tangible and intangible), so as to enhance business profitability. In this sense, industrial security entails awareness, avoidance, planning, protection, preservation, alarm, deterrence andreaction.
Historical background to security management
Although the systematic study of security management as a separate branch of human knowledge has a recent origin, the practice of security management is as old as human society.
The story of security dates back through thousands of years in human
history when individuals, communities and groups recognised the threat, danger or peril around their lives and property, and made efforts, individually and collectively to protect their lives and property. The philosophy of security is embedded in an age-long ideology that was from creation and God sanctioned our lives by nature for protection. Adam was securing the Garden of Eden before he lost the business security keys to the empire and was sent away by God.
The history of man is replete with activities, which led to emergence of the idea that is now known as security management. Archaeology has unearthed extensive accumulations of elaborate security achievements. The mammoth worlds of the ancient Babylon, the pyramids of Pharaohs, the Roman Empire, etc. rival the accomplishment of modern security management considering the state of technology.
The glory that was Rome must be credited in great part to superior
activities. Roman region conquered an empire that in the 2nd century of
the Christian era, comprehended the farthest past of the earth and the
most civilized portion of mankind. ‘These vast domains were linked
together by an elaborate security network that started from Rome into
the other provinces.
The Industrial Revolution
A lot of history, economics and other business books have been filled with accounts of the technological innovations of the industrial revolution in Great Britain and United States of America. Little was known about the security management methods and techniques that helped to make that progress possible. It seems highly unlikely that they could have made the industrial progress of the 19th century without a foundation of successful security management.
The advent of the factory as the primary mode of production, and the tremendous rise in the volume of production of industrial revolution also created a need for large number of security managers. The factory system may be distinguished from other modes of production in that workers, stocks of raw material and finished goods, machines and equipment, documents and other assets were concentrated in one building or group of buildings. It also brought centralised control of production between the employer and the employee. The industrial revolution was a major contributory factor in the rapid development of the factory system, furnishing both the power and the machines for large-scale production, and large amount of capital were required to finance the factories.
Since the crafts worker lacked the resources to buy the machine or to
compete with machines, he assumed the role of an employee and the
bourgeois class who had the money to assume the role of employer. The
relationship between the employer and the employee become impersonal.
As a result of the impersonal relationship between the employer and the employee, the latter felt that he was no longer an organic part of the organisation and his interest in the organisation as a whole rested in its ability to pay him a wage with which he nurtured his body and soul. The industrial revolution also made affluence possible, caused in income disparity, and displaced the crafts worker who cannot complete with machines. The new challenges, frustrations and temptation aggravated offences of physical need and criminality of affluence and, greed. Another contributory factor is the capitalist system, wherein the bulk of goods and services needed by society are created and distributed by private enterprise in search of profit, with its essential attributes of materialism, private property, free enterprise, profit motive, self interest, competition and the price mechanism. People became preoccupied with material possession- the rich were respected for their wealth whiles the poor were disrespected for their poverty.
Consequently, most people wanted to become rich and be respected. Many people engaged in different types of activities, such as manufacturing, banking, office work, robbery, pilferage, kidnapping, assassination, dope selling, pimping, etc. in order to get rich.
SELF- ASSESSMENT EXERCISE
Why did the relationship between the employer and the employee become impersonal? Elaborate on this question and send your answers via WhatsApp Only to +2348050349740
The Rise of the Industrial Security Class in Nigeria
Some thirty years ago very little was known about the industrial security career in Nigeria. Only very few Government agencies and parastatals had security departments. They included the Central Bank of Nigeria, the Nigeria Security Printing and Minting Company, the Universities and in later years the Nigeria Ports Authority and the Nigeria Airport Authority. The security department of the Nigeria Ports Authority did not last very long. It was dissolved for undisclosed reasons.
The only known security agency was the Nigeria Police, which was Government’s sole legally constituted agency for crime prevention and law enforcement. Also the Armed Forces for safeguarding the security of the country from overt outside aggression.
As the economy of the country progressed, especially with the enactment of the Nigeria Enterprise Promotion Act of 1972 and 1977 (otherwise known as the Indigenisation Decree), many business which were hitherto in the hands of foreign businessmen passed into the hands of Nigerians. There was sudden upsurge in government revenue from petroleum exploration, the economy became suddenly over liquid. The result of the excess liquidation was inflation.
Three major problems that immediately faced the emergent Nigerian entrepreneur include the problem of how to organise his newly acquired business to avoid disruption and possible collapse that the unplanned change in management may cause,. How to cope with the run-away inflation which had badly eroded the purchasing power of the naira, and how to contain the increasing offences of physical need and the criminality of greed from within and without the enterprise so as to enhance profitability. The worsened general economic conditions soon after the Nigerian civil war, coupled with lack of necessary goods, the realisation of extreme sacrifice, and the spreading disappointment and discontent caused insecurity of life and property to rise threateningly.
The post war period was characterised by increase in offenses of physical need, above all, theft, pilferage, and fraud, falsehood, and so on perpetrated by demoralised youths, women and members of the more educated class. Added to this was a frightening lack of necessary goods and also jobs, and finally a general shortage of money as well as
increased number of orphaned and illegitimate children worsened the
Under the above circumstances, it is not surprising that in the postwar era the Nigeria Police could not provide the much needed security cover to individuals and corporate organisations.
More so, as the growing affluence manifested itself in an increase of the criminality of greed, crime changed its forms of appearance and adapted itself to the emerging new technology and economic conditions. Wealthy individuals and corporate assets became more exposed to security risk. Companies continued to record colossal increase in loss. The need for trained security experts tripled. But adequate manpower was not just available.
Ex -policemen and Ex-servicemen were not willing to return to the office for redeployment because work then was regarded as slavery. They saw it as something that was confined to the gate or patrol.
At the end of the Civil War in 1970, many policemen and soldiers who were not reabsorbed into the Police Force and the Armed Forces were desirous of accepting the job of security. This marked a turning point, as the arrival of knowledgeable men in the industrial security scene / career, made a world of difference. A new lease of life was injected into various aspects of industrial security.
Many organisations have full time security departments, comprising of well-educated and trained personnel, and with competitive salaries and remunerations like their counterparts in other professions, with the prospects of advancing to chief executive officers (CEOS) position. Industrial security is a profession worldwide today.
Corporate terrorism is a breach of corporate security. It is a threat to corporate live and property. It also exposes the handicap and inefficiency of the company’s intelligence security. The overwhelming temptation is to sweep the handicap and inefficiency under the rug or nail management on the cross of security incompetence. It is noteworthy that, intelligence security is within the realm of the security department’s function. The security department must feed management with enough intelligence information. Perhaps, this may call for the creation of intelligence section within the security division or the company as a whole. Some companies in Nigeria call this section ‘spy’.
The security network’s red – alert message should help management to
burst corporate terrorists and industrial espionage bid in the buds. A security manager that is worth his salt must initiate action for the
collection, coordination and communication of intelligence information on the activities of violent and / or potential violent employees. He must develop a network with undercover operatives to cultivate information about sources of terrorist’ gangs, and assemble, analyse, assess, and
communicate security intelligence (about threats and or potential threats
to the company’s rights) to management.
The management may refuse to believe the intelligence information as did Director X when in mid – July 1999 the security manager radioed
him of a planned invasion of the company’s industrial area by youths from the community, on Monday, August 9. He expressed surprise and regretted his -disbelief when the attack did take place on the date the
security manager predicted. More than 2,000 rioters from the
community invaded the company premises, burning houses and looting
The police were alerted. They arrived and in panic, they shot into the crowd resulting in the death of the rioters. This sparked off another round of destruction as the youths broke through the police barrier and headed down the police station, sacked and set it ablaze
On the other hand, the management may believe the intelligence information, as did Director A, when the company security intelligence confirmed planned hostage taking of its staff by youths from the Area. Director A immediately summoned the community representatives
including elders, youth’s leaders and women leaders for dialogue, government representative presiding. And an agreement was reached on ways of resolving the issues raised by the community. A replica of ugly situation was averted with understanding reached and cooperation guaranteed.
Information seen to be unimportant may soon develop, that what was communicated was merely the tip of the iceberg. Hidden beneath the business environment lay a monstrous destructive force, that could threaten to rip the bottom right out of the ship of commerce and
In this unit, we highlighted the definitions and concepts of industrial
security. We traced the history of security to the mammoth worlds of
the ancient Babylon, the Pyramids of the Pharaohs, the Roman Empire
etc. We also discussed the contribution of the industrial revolution to industrial security, the rise of industry security class in Nigeria and impacts of loss on the consumer, the company and the society at large.
Dr. Ohio O. Ojeagbase (MBA, ERMAP, PhD)
Certified Private Investigator, Business Security Consultant & Corporate Governance Strategist
Kreeno International Limited
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Web: www.kreenoholdings.com and www.kreenoplus.com